Improvised Cook Stoves (ICS) Cooking is a common task completed by households around the world on a daily basis. In all developing parts of the world, in rural areas and semi-urban areas, this cooking takes place with biomass or solid fuels, on open fires and rudimentary stoves. Solid fuels remain a critical part of the energy formula for many households. For example, ~67% of households in India (equivalent of ~166 million households) remain wedded to solid fuels as their primary source of cooking fuel. Concern around biomass use, its effect on the local environment and its health, economic and social impacts has been on the international agenda intermittently for many years. The use of solid fuels and inefficient cook stoves has had significant impacts on health outcomes and livelihoods, particularly for women. Nearly 2 million people a year die prematurely from illness attributable to indoor air pollution (IAP) caused by the use of solid fuel globally. The inefficiency also results in increased use of wood or biomass for cooking, leading to increased deforestation. In addition to the health impacts, inefficient cook stoves and practices entails that women spend up to ~5-8 hours per day on cooking activities, with ~20% of that time devoted to the collection of fuel. Deforestation is a serious concern when looked at with the above data on primary fuel being wood. So there is an overwhelming motivation to switch to cleaner and efficient cooking stoves and fuels. By terming a stove as clean and efficient cook stove, this stove adheres to the qualification criteria on efficiency (>25% for natural draft and >35% for forced draft) and emissions, for example, as prescribed by MNRE in India, as well as by other organizations participating in clean or improved cook stove initiative (ICS) worldwide (see below).
Enphiniti Engineering Solutions Private Ltd has developed a cook stove following the above guidelines and meeting the above said requirements.
The Enphiniti cook stove, Ojaskara®, as it is called, has the following features:
- The body of the stove is made of steel, so it has very high endurance and good finish.
- Low smoke generation; it is limited to only during start of ignition.
- Natural draft based design; the draft is enabled and enhanced by the air vents below the grating for placement of fuel. Hence, no moving parts.
- Modularised for multi-fuel usage; can be used with any solid biomass fuel as well as the conical top can be used for cooking with charcoal as fuel; hence can facilitate even simultaneous cooking with both the fuels for variety of foods.
- Optionally, it can also generate electricity; with the help of thermoelectric power modules using the waste heat from the stove. It can generate electricity up to 3 W (4.5 ~ 5 V and 0.5 ~ 0.6 A).This can be used for lighting a LED lantern and/or for charging the mobile phone.
The product can be sold as modules, depending on the needs of the end user.The various modules/options that can be purchased, either separately or together, are:
- The basic cooking module; any solid biomass, like wood, wood chips, cow dung cakes etc can be used as fuel in this module.
- The electricity generation add-on module; this can be purchased along with the above modules, either with the basic module alone or together with the charcoal module,to produce electricity up to 3 W while cooking.This module will include a LED Lantern with a built-in mobile charger (and external charging adaptor (AC->DC) but not a solar panel.
- The Solar add-on module; this is a 3 W solar panel, can be used to charge the Li-Ion battery in the LED Lantern or any other devices such as a mobile phone or a portable radio or a fan with a rechargeable battery, in addition to being charged by electricity generation add-on module.This module will include a LED Lantern ( 130 Lumens max power with a dimmer option) with a built-in mobile charger and an external charging adaptor (AC-DC) and can be purchased with or without options A or B.
The electricity generating module (B) as shown here can be attached permanently in the back side of the stove and generating electricity while cooking and charging the solar lamp or can be inserted from the front while cooking and removed later when not in use as shown on the right.